Saturday, 12 April 2014

BRICK MASONRY & STONE MASONRY - BUILDING MATERIAL & CONSTRUCTION

BRICK MASONRY & STONE MASONRY 


This post includes topics such as Terms used, Types of bonds & their merits and demerits,  rubble and ashlar joints in stone masonry, cement concrete hollow blocks and their advantages and disadvantage.
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MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS - BUILDING MATERIALS & CONSTRUCTION



MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS - PAINT , PLASTIC, GLASS, DISTEMPER



This post includes important miscellaneous topic of Building Material & Construction such as Paints, Distempering, Glass, Plastics.
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TIMBER - BUILDING MATERIAL & CONSTRUCTION

TIMBER


This post includes Structure of a tree , classification of trees, Defects in timber, Qualities of good a timber, Seasoning of timber , Decay of timber, Preservation of timber.

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DAMP PROOFING - BUILDING MATERIAL & CONSTRUCTION

DAMP PROOFING


This post includes  Sources, causes and bad effects of dampness, preventive measures for dampness in buildings.
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FOUNDATION - BUILDING MATERIAL & CONSTRUCTION


FOUNDATION & WALLS 


This post includes Definition, types of foundations, causes of failures of foundation and remedial measures ,Types of walls and thickness considerations.


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Concrete - BUILDING MATERIAL & CONSTRUCTION

CONCRETE

This post includes topics like Introduction, Constituents of concrete, Batching of materials, Manufacturing process of cement concrete, workability and factors affecting it, Methods to determine workability, segregation and bleeding of concrete, Strength of concrete and factors affecting it.
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I.S. CODE - 800 -2007 ( DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURE)

I.S. CODE - 800 -2007 ( DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURE)

I.S. CODE - 800 -2007 ( DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURE)

This code is very much useful for designing purpose.

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I.S. CODE - 800 -1984 ( DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURE)

I.S. CODE - 800 -1984 ( DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURE)

This code is very much useful for designing purpose.

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Monday, 31 March 2014

DIVERSION HEAD WORKS ( IRRIGATION ENGINEERING-2)

DIVERSION HEAD WORKS(IRRIGATION ENGINEERING-2)



This post includes topics like Functions and investigations: component parts of a diversion head work and their design considerations, silt control devices.

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CANAL FALLS (IRRIGATION ENGINEERING -2)

CANAL FALLS (IRRIGATION ENGINEERING -2)


This post includes topics like Necessity and location, types of falls and their description, selection of type of falls, Principles of design, Design of Sarda type, straight glacis and Inglis or baffle wall falls. 

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Sunday, 30 March 2014

CHARACTERISTICS & TESTING OF SEWAGE (ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -2 / WASTER WATER ENGINEERING)

CHARACTERISTICS & TESTING OF SEWAGE 

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -2 / WASTER WATER ENGINEERING


This post includes topics like(Composition of sewage, sampling, physical & chemical analysis of sewerage, biological decomposition of sewage, kinetic of organic waste stabilization.)

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HOUSE DRAINAGE (ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -2 / WASTER WATER ENGINEERING)

            HOUSE DRAINAGE 

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -2 / WASTER WATER ENGINEERING



This post includes topics like( Principles of House drainage, traps, Inspection chamber Indian and European type W.C. Flushing cisterns, soil-waste and anti-syphonage pipes, plumbing system.)

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EVAPOTRANSPIRATION ( HYDROLOGY & DAMS)

     EVAPOTRANSPIRATION ( HYDROLOGY & DAMS)


 This post includes topics like Interception, Evapo-transptration and Infiltration: Factors affecting interception, evaporation from free water surfaces and from land surfaces, transpiration, Evapotranspiration.Infiltration Factors affecting infiltration, rate, Infiltration capacity and its determination.

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PRECIPITATION ( HYDROLOGY & DAMS)

       PRECIPITATION ( HYDROLOGY & DAMS)


This post includes topics like Introduction, Precipitation: Importance of hydrological data in water resources planning. Thhydrologic cycle. Mechanics of precipitation, types and causes, measurement by rain gauges Gauge net-works, hyetograph, averaging depth of precipitation over the basin, mass-rainfall curves, intensity duration frequency curves, depth area-duration curves. 
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RUN OFF ( HYDROLOGY & DAMS)

            RUN OFF ( HYDROLOGY & DAMS)


This post includes topics like Factors affecting runoff, run-off hydrograph, unit hydrograph theory, S-curve hydrograph,  Synder’s synthetic unit hydrograph.

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Monday, 17 March 2014

REMOTE SENSING - GEOMATICS

            Remote Sensing

This post includes topics like Introduction, Basic Principles, Electromagnetic (EM) Energy Spectrum, EM Radiations and the Atmosphere, Interaction of EM radiations with Earth’s Surface, Types of remote sensing systems, Remote Sensing Observation Platforms, Satellites and their characteristics – Geostationary and sun-synchronous, Earth Resources Satellites, Meteorological satellites, Sensors, Types and their characteristics, Across track and Along track scanning, Applications of Remote Sensing.  


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ELECTROMAGNETIC DISTANCE MEASUREMENT - GEOMATICS


Electromagnetic Distance Measurement (EDM)

This post includes topics like Electromagnetic Waves, Carrier Waves, Black body radiation, Laws of radiation Modulation,Types of EDM Instruments, Electro-optical, Infrared, and Microwave EDM Instruments,Effect of Atmospheric Conditions, The Geodimeter, The Tellurometer, Wild Distomats, Electronic Total Station. 


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PHOTOGRAMMETRY - GEOMATICS

                                                               Photogrammetry

This post includes topics like Introduction, Basic Principles, Photo-Theodolite, Elevation of a Point by Photographic Measurement , Aerial Camera, Vertical Photograph, Tilted Photograph, Scale, Crab and Drift, Flight Planning for Aerial Photography, Ground Control for Photogrammetry, Photomaps and Mosaics, Stereoscopic Vision, Stereoscopic parallax, Stereoscopic Plotting Instruments, Applications.



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Sunday, 16 March 2014

EARTH PRESSURE (FOUNDATION ENGINEERING/SOIL MECHANICS)

                Earth Pressure



This post includes topics related to earth pressure theories such asTerms and symbols used for a retaining wall. Movement of all and the lateral earth pressure. Earth pressure at rest. Rankine states of plastic equilibrium, Ka and Kp for horizontal backfills. Rankine’s theory both for active and passive earth pressure for Cohesionless backfill with surcharge and fully submerged case. Cohesive backfill condition. Coulomb's method for cohesion less backfill. Merits and demerits of Ranking and Coulomb's theories, Culmann’s graphical construction (without surcharge load).

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Sunday, 15 December 2013

FRAMED STRUCTURE - INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION TO FRAMED STRUCTURE
A framed structure consists of a series of frames, formed of columns or pillars or stanchions which are connected by means of beams at floor level and roof levels. Walls are constructed within these frames. These walls are connected and known as panel walls or in fillings. Thus the loads of the floors, roofs and panel walls are supported by the beams which in turn, transmit the loads to the columns and these in turn carry the whole weight of the structure to the foundations.
Materials used for the framed structures are, wood, steel and R.C.C. Wood is used for light - framed structures. For multistorey buildings, frames of mild steel or R.C.C. are
formed.In case of light - framed structures, panel walls can be replaced by cladding panels. Cladding is a term which is used to denote comparatively thin sheets required to enclose the framework. This cladding may be asbestos cement sheets, corrugated galvanized iron sheets, copper sheets, thin concrete slabs, panels of glass or wood, tiles etc.

ADVANTAGES OF FRAMED STRUCTURES:
1. THIN PANELS:- It can be easily seen that in case of a framed structures, a beam has to support a wall between the adjacent columns and the beam immediately above it, irrespective of the height of the building. The maximum height of wall that a beam has to support would be that of storey height. This
results in thin panels which incidentally increases the floor area. The external walls should only be sufficiently thick to withstand weather conditions & have required heat & sound insulation. The internal walls should be sufficiently thick to have heat & sound insulation.
2. SPEED IN CONSTRUCTION:-It is possible to achieve speed in construction in case of a framed structure. The construction of framework of the upper floors & finishing of the lower floors can be carried out simultaneously. Thus, it is
possible to execute several building trades in a building at the same time.
3. FREEDOM OF PLANNING:- A framed structure permits greater freedom in planning. Large open spaces can be easily provided in the building & provisions of open walls can be suitably changed to meet the requirements at any time.
4.USE OF PROPER MATERIALS:- A framed structure divides the members of building into two groups: load bearing & non-load bearing. Materials of inferior quality can be used for the latter members where strength is not the main
consideration.
5.BETTER RESISTANCE TO VIBRATIONS:- It is found that framed structures can resist vibrations effectively. Hence, framed structures are useful for factory buildings & also for places subjected to earthquakes.
6. UNRELIABLE SOILS:- For made up & unreliable soils & for pile foundations, framed structures are found to be more suitable & less expensive than ordinary walled structures.
7.ECONOMY IN CONSTRUCTION:- The advantages of the framed
structures, mentioned above, lead to overall economy in the construction of of a structure. Hence, the present day tendency or to adopt framed structures as for as possible.

PARTS OF FRAMED STRUCTURES:
1. Foundation
2. Tie Beams
3. Columns
4. Beams
5. Roof Slabs
6. Chhajja projections




Friday, 13 December 2013

IRRIGATION ENGINEERING-1 : QUICK REVISION SERIES 1

IRRIGATION ENGINEERING-1   : QUICK REVISION SERIES 1  


This post includes 
IRRIGATION ENGINEERING-1 QUICK REVISION SERIES 1    which oftenly comes in most of the engineering examinations of various universities & other competitive exams


Q. Write short brief note on sprinkler irrigation.
A. In this method an attempt is made to simulate natural rainfall. Irrigation water is applied to the land in the form of a spray. It is also called overhead irrigation. Sprinklers are used in this & are applied on all soil type topography. According to the equipment & procedure used the sprinkler method may fell in fixed type on portable type. In perforated fix pipe sprinkler parallel pipes are installed at a suitable spacing (15m.) & are supported on posts. The water is discharged through the perforations at right angles of 135 degree to vertical. With this inclination it is possible to irrigate the full strip of (15m.) width. Sometimes nozzles can be fixed to the pipes. The water passes through the pipes under pressure. In nurseries & orchards portable Flexible pipe sprinklers are used.

Q. What is the purpose of providing artificial cutoff in river training?
A. Cutoff may be made artificially to make the river channel straight. It helps in reducing the river length & also the land encircled by loop is reclaimed. It is a simple river training work.

Q. For what purpose Garret diagrams are used?
A. A lot of mathematical calculation are required in designing irrigation channels by the use of Kennedy’s method. To save mathematical calculations graphical solutions of Kennedy’s & Kutter’s equation was evolved by Garret.

Q. What is ridge canal?
A. For a canal system in plain areas, where land slopes are respectively flat and uniform it is often necessary & advantageous to align canals on the water sheds of the areas to be irrigated. The canal which is aligned along any natural watershed (ridge line) is called a water shed canal or ridge canal. Aligning a canal on ridge ensures gravity irrigation on both sides of the canal moreover since the drainage flows away from the ridge no drainage can cross a canal aligned on the ridge. Thus a canal aligned on the water shed saves the cost of construction of cross drainage works.

Q. What is time factor?
A. To check the dangers of over irrigation leading to water logging & salinity no distributary is allowed to operate on all the days during any crop season. The ratio of the actual operating period is called the time factor of the distributary.

Q. What do you understand by Bandhra irrigation?
A. The method consists in building a small barrier across a stream or a river to raise water level on the upstream of the barrier. Then the water is diverted canal, through a head regulator for irrigation purposes are called Bandhra Irrigation. It is also a type of flow irrigation. After raising the water level. To a required level excess water flows over the barrier.  Spilling water flows down which can be further checked by constructing another barrier on the downstream at a selected site. Thus number of barriers on Bandhra’s as the barriers are designated are constructed in a series across the river or stream. Bandhra’s are generally built with masonry. Each Bandhra & canal system taking off from bandhra forms a complete unit. The area served by each Bandhra varies from few hectares to about 400 hectares. The length of canal system should not be more than 8 (k.m.).

Q. Define Irrigation? What is its objective & in how many ways it benefits the nation.
A.
IRRIGATION: Irrigation is a systematically developed knowledge based on long observations & experimentations of handling available sources of water for economic growth of bumper crops. It includes training & tapping of sources of water supply, storing of water, conveying that water effectively to the fields. It includes drainage of surplus water & then using that supply of water economically for the bumper crop production.
OBJECTIVES:
1. Satisfying paramount need of adequate water provision in crop production. Our country is so much subject to vagaries of monsoon that the area without irrigation facility & is often just like uncultivated area. Irrigation not only supplements the rainfall but also helps in correcting inequalities in the distribution of rainfall which may be abundant when not needed & scanty when needed.
     2.  Making conditions favorable for plant growth by wetting the soil after watering.                   3. Leaching the saline & alkali soils particularly in arid regions.

Q. Define Intensity of Irrigation?

A. Only a small percentage of C.C.A. is brought under irrigation over given season. This percentage of C.C.A. proposed to be irrigated in given season is called the intensity of irrigation of that season, or seasonal intensity of irrigation. Sometimes the intensity of irrigation is worked out over the entire year. (Inclusive of two or more crop seasons, when it is called the annual irrigation intensity or annual intensity of irrigation which may be defined as percentage of C.C.A. which may be irrigated annually.