BRICK MASONRY & STONE MASONRY This post includes topics such as Terms used, Types of bonds & their merits and demerits, rubble and ashlar joints in stone masonry, cement concrete hollow blocks and their advantages and disadvantage. FOR MORE DETAILS CLICK ON THE LINKS GIVEN BELOW DOWNLOAD PDF
This post includes Structure of a tree , classification of trees, Defects in timber, Qualities of good a timber, Seasoning of timber , Decay of timber, Preservation of timber. FOR MORE DETAILS CLICK ON THE LINKS GIVEN BELOW DOWNLOAD PDF
This post includes Definition, types of foundations, causes of failures of foundation and remedial measures ,Types of walls and thickness considerations. FOR MORE DETAILS CLICK ON THE LINKS GIVEN BELOW DOWNLOAD PDF DOWNLOAD WORD
CONCRETE This post includes topics like Introduction, Constituents of concrete, Batching of materials, Manufacturing process of cement concrete, workability and factors affecting it, Methods to determine workability, segregation and bleeding of concrete, Strength of concrete and factors affecting it. FOR MORE DETAILS CLICK ON THE LINKS GIVEN BELOW DOWNLOAD PDF DOWNLOAD WORD
This post includes topics like Necessity and location, types of falls and their description, selection of type of falls, Principles of design, Design of Sarda type, straight glacis and Inglis or baffle wall falls. FOR MORE DETAILS DOWNLOAD THIS TOPIC DOWNLOAD PDF DOWNLOAD WORD
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -2 / WASTER WATER ENGINEERING
This post includes topics like(Composition of sewage, sampling, physical & chemical analysis of sewerage, biological decomposition of sewage, kinetic of organic waste stabilization.) FOR MORE DETAILS DOWNLOAD THIS TOPIC DOWNLOAD PDF DOWNLOAD WORD BONUS DOWNLOAD
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ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -2 / WASTER WATER ENGINEERING
This post includes topics like( Principles of House drainage, traps, Inspection chamber Indian and European type W.C. Flushing cisterns, soil-waste and anti-syphonage pipes, plumbing system.) FOR MORE DETAILS DOWNLOAD THIS TOPIC. DOWNLOAD PDF DOWNLOAD WORD
This post includes topics like Interception, Evapo-transptration and Infiltration: Factors affecting interception, evaporation from free water surfaces and from land surfaces, transpiration, Evapotranspiration.Infiltration Factors affecting infiltration, rate, Infiltration capacity and its determination. CLICK BELOW TO DOWNLOAD THIS TOPIC DOWNLOAD PDF DOWNLOAD WORD
This post includes topics like Introduction, Precipitation: Importance of hydrological data in water resources planning. Thhydrologic cycle. Mechanics of precipitation, types and causes, measurement by rain gauges Gauge net-works, hyetograph, averaging depth of precipitation over the basin, mass-rainfall curves, intensity duration frequency curves, depth area-duration curves. .
This post includes topics like Factors affecting runoff, run-off hydrograph, unit hydrograph theory, S-curve hydrograph, Synder’s synthetic unit hydrograph. FOR MORE DETAILS DOWNLOAD THIS TOPIC DOWNLOAD PDF DOWNLOAD WORD
This post includes topics like Introduction, Basic Principles, Electromagnetic (EM) Energy Spectrum, EM Radiations and the Atmosphere, Interaction of EM radiations with Earth’s Surface, Types of remote sensing systems, Remote Sensing Observation Platforms, Satellites and their characteristics – Geostationary and sun-synchronous, Earth Resources Satellites, Meteorological satellites, Sensors, Types and their characteristics, Across track and Along track scanning, Applications of Remote Sensing.
This post includes topics like Electromagnetic Waves, Carrier Waves, Black body radiation, Laws of radiation Modulation,Types of EDM Instruments, Electro-optical, Infrared, and Microwave EDM Instruments,Effect of Atmospheric Conditions, The Geodimeter, The Tellurometer, Wild Distomats, Electronic Total Station.
This post includes topics like Introduction, Basic Principles, Photo-Theodolite, Elevation of a Point by Photographic Measurement , Aerial Camera, Vertical Photograph, Tilted Photograph, Scale, Crab and Drift, Flight Planning for Aerial Photography, Ground Control for Photogrammetry, Photomaps and Mosaics, Stereoscopic Vision, Stereoscopic parallax, Stereoscopic Plotting Instruments, Applications.
This post includes topics related to earth pressure theories such asTerms and symbols used for a retaining wall. Movement of all and the lateral earth pressure. Earth pressure at rest. Rankine states of plastic equilibrium, Ka and Kp for horizontal backfills. Rankine’s theory both for active and passive earth pressure for Cohesionless backfill with surcharge and fully submerged case. Cohesive backfill condition. Coulomb's method for cohesion less backfill. Merits and demerits of Ranking and Coulomb's theories, Culmann’s graphical construction (without surcharge load).
INTRODUCTION TO FRAMED STRUCTURE A framed structure consists of a series of frames, formed of columns or pillars or stanchions which are connected by means of beams at floor level and roof levels. Walls are constructed within these frames. These walls are connected and known as panel walls or in fillings. Thus the loads of the floors, roofs and panel walls are supported by the beams which in turn, transmit the loads to the columns and these in turn carry the whole weight of the structure to the foundations. Materials used for the framed structures are, wood, steel and R.C.C. Wood is used for light - framed structures. For multistorey buildings, frames of mild steel or R.C.C. are formed.In case of light - framed structures, panel walls can be replaced by cladding panels. Cladding is a term which is used to denote comparatively thin sheets required to enclose the framework. This cladding may be asbestos cement sheets, corrugated galvanized iron sheets, copper sheets, thin concrete slabs, panels of glass or wood, tiles etc.
ADVANTAGES OF FRAMED STRUCTURES: 1. THIN PANELS:- It can be easily seen that in case of a framed structures, a beam has to support a wall between the adjacent columns and the beam immediately above it, irrespective of the height of the building. The maximum height of wall that a beam has to support would be that of storey height. This results in thin panels which incidentally increases the floor area. The external walls should only be sufficiently thick to withstand weather conditions & have required heat & sound insulation. The internal walls should be sufficiently thick to have heat & sound insulation. 2. SPEED IN CONSTRUCTION:-It is possible to achieve speed in construction in case of a framed structure. The construction of framework of the upper floors & finishing of the lower floors can be carried out simultaneously. Thus, it is possible to execute several building trades in a building at the same time. 3. FREEDOM OF PLANNING:- A framed structure permits greater freedom in planning. Large open spaces can be easily provided in the building & provisions of open walls can be suitably changed to meet the requirements at any time. 4.USE OF PROPER MATERIALS:- A framed structure divides the members of building into two groups: load bearing & non-load bearing. Materials of inferior quality can be used for the latter members where strength is not the main consideration. 5.BETTER RESISTANCE TO VIBRATIONS:- It is found that framed structures can resist vibrations effectively. Hence, framed structures are useful for factory buildings & also for places subjected to earthquakes. 6. UNRELIABLE SOILS:- For made up & unreliable soils & for pile foundations, framed structures are found to be more suitable & less expensive than ordinary walled structures. 7.ECONOMY IN CONSTRUCTION:- The advantages of the framed structures, mentioned above, lead to overall economy in the construction of of a structure. Hence, the present day tendency or to adopt framed structures as for as possible.
PARTS OF FRAMED STRUCTURES: 1. Foundation 2. Tie Beams 3. Columns 4. Beams 5. Roof Slabs 6. Chhajja projections